What is assisted reproductive technology?
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) are methods to have baby easily, developed to assist fertilization and normal delivery for infertile couples. In assisted reproductive technology, egg and sperm handled quiet significantly. In general, it is possible by the joint operation of healthcare professional such as physicians, psychologists, embryologists, lab technicians, and nurses. They work together and help infertile couples to procure pregnancy.
The most common assisted reproductive technology is In-vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. It mainly involved in stimulating and retrieving of mature eggs from women. It helps fertilizing them with sperm of a man within a dish by implanting the embryos in the uterus. Most of cases, it takes three to five days after fertilization. However, the success rate of In-vitro fertilization is lower after age of 35. Sometimes other In-vitro fertilization techniques also used such as:
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique.
In this technique, sperm injected directly into mature eggs. In general, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed when there will be defect in sperm quality. IVF cycle fails during fertilization attempts, if few defective sperms are not segregated.
Assisted hatching technique.
Assisted hatching technique used to assist the implantation of the embryo into the uterus linings. The process is called hatching, performed by opening the outer covering of the embryo.
Donor sperm or egg technique.
If the eggs of a women and her partner’s sperm used, assisted reproductive technology will be effective. Weather you will choose to use eggs, sperm or embryos depends up the donor capability. Use of the eggs, sperm or embryos also determined by infertility complications.
Gestational carrier technique.
Gestational carrier technique used for the women, who don’t have functional uterus. When uterus doesn’t function properly, a woman may get serious health risk, even death. So in this case, embryo placed in uterus using gestational carriers for safe pregnancy.
Treatment complications using assisted reproductive technology
Any medical treatment can’t ensure 100 % guarantee of cure, different approaches targeted on different person. The complications are such as:
Possibility of multiple pregnancy.
In general, most common side effect is multiple pregnancy such as giving birth twins, or more babies. Greater the number of fetuses, the higher the risk of premature labor and delivery. Fetus is a prenatal human state between its embryonic and birth. The baby may get serious developmental problems in uterus. The target of this treatment should focus on single healthy pregnancy to have a healthy baby.
Possibility of Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS).
OHSS occurred during injectable hormone medications of In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Using this treatment ovaries also become swollen and painful. The woman may get symptoms of pain in the abdomen, bloating and nausea continues about a week, or longer.
Possibility of Bleeding or infections.
There is a rare risk of bleeding or infection with any invasive procedure of assisted reproductive technology.
Possibility of Birth defects.
Baby conceived using IVF is having potential risk of certain birth defects like disorder of heart and digestive system. Researcher concluded this appears to be related for which couples need infertility treatments and not interested for the IVF techniques.