What is Hemoglobin A1c test?
Hemoglobin A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose present in the blood over last 2 to 3 months. Glucose amount is determined by measuring the percentage of glycated hemoglobin in blood. Hemoglobin is a protein helps in oxygen transporting found inside RBC. There are several types of hemoglobin, but hemoglobin A is predominantly occupy about 95 to 98 percentage. Glucose binds to hemoglobin A, when it circulate spontaneously in the blood.
More glycated hemoglobin is formed by increase in level of glucose. In general, the life span of glucose molecules is around 120 days since it binds with glycated hemoglobin. Hemoglobin A1c are produced on a daily basis. It slowly removes the dying older RBC molecules and replaces with younger one. The younger RBC molecules are type of non-glycated hemoglobin.
To obtain sample for hemoglobin A1c test, your healthcare provider will insert a needle into a vein in the arm. Using another ways, they collect a drop of blood from your finger by pricking it with a small pin pointed lancet. They will instruct you not to take any special preparation before collecting test sample.
Why to do Hemoglobin A1c test?
Hemoglobin A1c test is very important to monitor treatments for patient who has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). It helps to evaluate glucose levels over time in diabetes mellitus patient. For monitor purposes, a hemoglobin A1c test of less than 7% indicates good glucose control and less risk for diabetes mellitus patient.
You doctor may recommend Hemoglobin A1c test as part of a health checkup when someone is suspected of having diabetes mellitus. You may fell the below signs or symptoms by increase in blood glucose levels.
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Loss of appetite
- Blurred vision
- Slow healing infection
The report for hemoglobin A1c test
The hemoglobin A1c test report includes the result expressed in SI units (mmol/mol) and an estimated average glucose (eAG). The result is determined based on the hemoglobin A1c levels. In general, a non-diabetes mellitus patient will have hemoglobin A1c result less than 5.7% (39 mmol/mol). In case of diabetes mellitus patient, the result will be less than 5.7% (39 mmol/mol).
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